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The Euratom treaty

Published on 25 May 2024

The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, known as the Euratom Treaty, was signed on 25 March 1957 in Rome by Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands, at the same time as the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community.

On July 1st, 2013, the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC), known as the Euratom Community, had twenty-eight member states with Croatia joining the EU. After Brexit and the departure of the United Kingdom, it consists now of twenty-seven Member States.

Title II of the Euratom Treaty entitled "Provisions for the encouragement of progress in the field of nuclear energy" defines the ten areas of Community action:

         Promotion of research (chapter 1) ;

         Dissemination of information (chapter 2) ;

         Health and Safety (chapter 3) ;

         Investment (chapter 4) ;

         Joint undertakings (chapter 5) ;

         Supplies (chapter 6) ;

         Safeguards (chapter 7) ;

         Property ownership (chapter 8) ;

         The nuclear common market (chapter 9) ;

         External relations (chapter 10)

The Euratom Treaty gives a leading role to the Council by establishing a voting system based, depending on the subject, on simple or qualified majority or even unanimity.

The European Parliament is also prone to be consulted in some specific cases. However, the co-decision procedure is not applicable in the various fields of action of Title II of the Treaty.


This treaty was built in accordance to the following principles:

1) developing the European civil nuclear industry;

2) supervising the use of civil nuclear energy;

3) preserve certain national strategic interests.